Company Law for Private Companies [Marathi Edition]

Shri. Mahesh Janardhan Risbud, Practising Company Secretary, Pune has authored a book on Company Law in Marathi Language. The book covers compliances and procedures for Private Companies and also covers a separate chapter on Limited Liability Partnerships (‘LLP’).

Considering the convenience of decision making, Private Companies – as a form of business organisation is preferred by many businessmen and entrepreneurs. In a private company, the minimum number of directors and shareholders are two. Generally, the decisions are taken mutually by the two directors & shareholders. In private companies, it is very convenient and cost-effective process to call and conduct a meeting of directors and shareholders and take the necessary decisions. Also, private companies are exempted from compliances of strict regulations under the Companies Act.

Under the Companies Act, 1956, there were specific exemptions given to private companies w.r.t. calling of meetings, directors / directors relative funding the private companies, drafting the Articles of Association of the company, disclosures to the shareholders and Government, etc.

Under the Companies Act, 2013, there were very few exemptions given to private companies. With an objective of ‘ease of doing business’ and promote entrepreneurship, the Government has issued several notifications and introduced certain exemptions for private companies.

The book ‘Company Law for Private Companies’ authored by Shri. Mahesh Janardhan Risbud is a compilation of the relevant provisions for private companies in Marathi language. The author has explained the provisions of the Companies Act and LLP Act is simple and lucid language. Initially, the author has explained the concept of ‘company’, its features and advantages. This part of the book will help the businessmen and entrepreneurs to decide whether to incorporate a partnership firm or company. The author has also explained different types and classes of companies, e.g. One Person company, private companies, companies with charitable objects, small companies, start-ups, etc.

Considering that the reader has decided to incorporate a company, the author then provides a detailed process for its incorporation. In simple language, he explains the process of selecting the name of the company, online application and its approval. Then he explains the Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association, which are the constitution documents of the company. Recently, the Govt. has re-introduced a concept of ‘commencement of business’, wherein the promoters are required to report to the Govt. about their infusion of share capital in the company after its incorporation. The author has rightly captured the latest amendment which would ensure timely compliance of the new regulation by business and entrepreneurs.

The directors are responsible for day-to-day functioning of the company. The author has lucidly explained the various provisions relating to appointment of directors, their tenure, duties and responsibilities. The author has also explained in simple language about the procedure of conducting and convening board meetings. 

On the share capital of the company, the author explains the different types of share capital, i.e. authorised share capital, issued share capital, subscribed share capital, paid-up share capital etc., along with different types of shares i.e. equity shares, preference shares, equity shares with differential voting rights, etc. With an objective of having a basic understanding of raising of finance by companies, the author has explained the different ways of raising it, i.e. Rights Issue, Private Placement, Preferential Issue, ESOPs. In a different chapter, the author has explained the various provisions relating to acceptance of loans and deposits by a company. The author has pointed out important aspects from the perspective of compliance under the Companies Act, 2013 and the Rules made thereunder. In a separate Chapter, the author has discussed some important aspects about the appointment of Statutory Auditor and Company Secretary and their role in functioning of company.

Running a business comes with its own challenges. Sometimes when things do not work out, necessary steps shall be taken for closure of company. In this part of the book, the author has adequately covered the provisions relating to winding-up of company, dormant companies, striking off of companies, liquidation of company. 

For the convenience of the readers, the author has presented the special provisions applicable to private companies, list of Registrar of Companies along with their updated addresses, list of applicable e-Forms, etc. in tabular format. This part of the book will be helpful for corporate law professionals from the perspective of routine compliance and audit.

The Author has also covered another important topic – Limited Liability Partnership. In this topic, the author has explained the process of incorporation, points to be considered in the LLP agreement, working and operations of LLP, roles and responsibilities of the partners and designated partners of the LLP. From the perspective of restructuring, the author has also covered important topics relating to conversion of company into LLP, conversion of partnership firm into LLP, closure of LLP, etc. This topic will help the readers in comparing the advantages and disadvantages of incorporating a company vis-à-vis LLP.

The book will be quite helpful for businessmen, entrepreneurs, non-commerce students, corporate law professionals and non-corporate law professionals for understanding the basic provisions of the companies and LLP. The book will be good addition to the Marathi curriculum and libraries of school/college/university. The book is presented in a very lucid and comprehensible manner to provide the readers an insight of the Companies Act as applicable to small private companies and LLP Act.